The issue of sustainability of guitar wood (and wood in general) is very complicated, with many different factors to consider, and I’m not going to go into any great detail about it here. This is just a (relatively) quick explanation of my thoughts about wood selection.
The traditional classical guitar wood choices were largely dictated by what was available in 19th century Spain, which is not a particularly useful criteria for choosing wood in 21st century England. I think that the beginning of a sustainable future for high-quality hand-made wooden guitars is to forget the idea that there are a few magical “tonewood” species which are necessary to make great guitars, and instead rationally look at the mechanical, acoustic and aesthetic properties of individual pieces of wood, and the environmental impacts of using them, then make intelligent choices based on those realities.
The skill and knowledge of the person designing and making the guitar is what will make it great, not having “master grade tonewood”: graded by whom, and using what criteria? Wood merchants mostly grade wood on aesthetic factors, which don’t necessarily tell you anything about the potential sound quality of a guitar made with that wood. There is no real justification for using endangered/threatened species to build guitars when there are more sustainable and responsible alternatives which can work equally well.
Independent guitar makers often make the excuse that we aren’t the real problem, as the amount of wood we use in a lifetime isn’t enough to cause any major deforestation, but that really is just an excuse: even if you’re only a small part of the problem, you’re still part of the problem. Also, I feel that as makers of high-end expensive wooden objects, we act as some of the figureheads of the woodworking world, and what we do will be followed and copied by larger scale guitar manufacturers and other woodworkers, which then creates a much bigger part of the problem. I have to admit that I’ve been quite lazy about actually changing my wood buying ways, because of the weight of traditional expectations about classical guitar construction, and because of the difficulty of finding high quality wood from sustainable sources. In the last couple of years, the sourcing issue has been partially solved by the increased availability of FSC certified woods, so at the beginning of 2016 I decided to put my money where my mouth is, and made up some responsible wood buying rules for myself.
The new wood I buy for my instruments will be mostly common, non-threatened (according http://www.iucnredlist.org), non-tropical species. Any tropical species will have to be from an FSC certified source (which is not a perfect system, but it’s a step or two in the right direction). Where possible, I will buy wood from a source which I personally know to be responsible/sustainable (e.g. from storm damaged trees, or small-scale timber production from sensibly managed sources). And occasionally I’ll use reclaimed/recycled wood. I’ve also decided to stop using any species which is listed in CITES appendix 1 or 2, or which is listed as vulnerable or endangered on the IUCN red list, which includes: all rosewoods (inc. cocobolo and African blackwood), bubinga, wenge, Honduran mahogany and most types of ebony.
I already have enough experience of working with a wide range of woods to be confident that I can make these changes while continuing to improve the quality of my guitars. In fact, through the process of researching and testing new woods, I’ve actually found some which I think are better options than the traditional choices. I’ll be introducing various new wood options over the next year or two, and will be able to offer guitars made from 100% responsibly sourced woods from 2017. Then I’ll phase out the less sustainable woods over the following few years as I use up my remaining stocks and optimise my designs to use more sensible alternatives.
I’ve used various soundboard woods over the years, but have mostly settled on using European spruce as my standard choice, because it gives a richness of tone colour which I don’t seem to get with other woods. European spruce is not endangered or threatened, and can be sustainably sourced, including from FSC certified sources. There is a question over the sustainable availability of trees large enough to make 2-piece tops, but a well made 4-piece top can work just as well and can be made from a much smaller/younger tree, so I have no immediate worries about the sustainability of soundboards.
Backs and sides –
The standard/traditional choices for classical guitar back/sides are both on the way to becoming endangered species, due to years of unsustainable overuse:
There are many alternatives which can make equally good guitars, but the main ones that I’m using at the moment are:
sycamore maple: a very traditional choice for instrument making, including guitars (used by Stradivari, Panormo, Torres, Hauser) and easily available from sustainable sources.
African padauk: more similar to rosewood (personally, I prefer it to Indian rosewood), and is available from FSC certified sources. This is my standard “rosewood-like” option.
There is a similar story with traditional neck woods:
But, again, there are good alternatives:
Douglas fir: stiffer, and with a higher stiffness to density ratio (a good thing for a neck wood) than Spanish cedar, with about the same density and hardness. Available from sustainable sources.
Spanish cedar is available from FSC certified plantation sources, and I’m still using that as an option at the moment.
katalox: harder, heavier, stiffer and more stable (all good things for a fingerboard, in my opinion) than ebony, and it’s available from FSC certified sources.
plum and other fruit woods: a traditional choice for fingerboards on early string instruments (lutes, viols, etc.)
rocklite: is an engineered ebony substitute material which looks and feels very similar to ebony (only a real wood expert would be able to tell the difference). A good choice if you want a plain black fingerboard.
I do the majority of the work on my instruments with hand tools, but do use some power tools: I buy my workshop electricity from 100% renewable sources, from Good Energy – https://goodenergy.co.uk/about-us